More ENIGMAWhat I want to discuss in this feature is one part of Enigma operation that has been much written about elsewhere, but which still causes some confusion. This is the way in which key presses lead to rotor motion....
Bill Casselman
IntroductionAn earlier Feature Column attempted to explain the mathematics behind the remarkable success of Polish mathematicians in breaking German Enigma codes during the years 19321939. I quote from the introduction to that previous column:
In that column I made an attempt to explain the mathematics I refer to, but in many ways that column was incomplete. I want to take up this subject again for several reasons. (1) In the past few years a number of valuable new sources (mostly Polish) have become available. Among them are two impressive accounts by Rejewski himself of his deciphering work, now translated from Polish into English. These are unfortunately published in a somewhat obscure Polish volume, and one of my aims here is to encourage someone to make it more accessible. In addition a Polish web site has links to many shorter memoirs by Rejewski that remain untranslated, and I hope to stimulate someone to translate them. (2) With the cooperation of the NSA I have taken a number of photographs of an Enigma machine that I want to use to discuss certain features of the machine that I believe the literature does not explain well. Unfortunately, I have not enough space here to cover both these topics. So in this column I shall just deal with the second one, wishing for the moment just to call attention to the Polish literature and web site. The Enigma machine
Rotor motionWhat I want to discuss in this feature is one part of Enigma operation that has been much written about elsewhere, but which still causes some confusion. This is the way in which key presses lead to rotor motion. There is one quirky feature involved. First, I have to say something about the rotors. Just behind the lamps on the machine are three smal windows that display numbers in the range 126 corresponding to letters of the alphabet.
The cover with the windows in it can be lifted, and when this is done the rotors carrying the numbers become visible.
The correspondence between numbers and letters is the natural one, buton this machine, at leastit is laid out on the inside of the wooden cover for the operator's convenience. (On some machines the display is in letters, not numbers.)
As the message proceeds, the numbers displayed are incremented. The right rotor is always incremented cyclically, going from 1 to 26 and then back to 1. When one rotor has advanced to a certain point the rotor on its left is also incremented. This is much like the odometer on a car, but because of the mechanism that implements this process, there are some slight differences. How does a key press move the rotors? The keys are linked to three levers (called more precisely 'pawls') that are pushed out when a key is pressed. In each pair of images below you see first the pawls at rest, then pushed out.
Here is a closer look:
The pawls push against the rotors. On the right side of a rotor is a wheel with twentysix notches, and on the other (at least in most models of Enigma) is a wheel with just one.
The right pawl moves out to the far right of the rotors, and the other two move out between the rotors to the left. The right pawl always engages the ratchet on the righthand side of the right rotor and advances it. But what the other pawls do is a bit more complicated. First a view from the top, with the position of the extended pawls indicated:
Then a schematic side view of two neighboring rotors, with left unengaged, right engaged:
It should become clear from these pictures that when the pawl engages the right notch, the rotors to both its left neighbor and its right neighbor move. At the far right this makes no difference, since there is no right neighbor. Nor does this make any difference with the next pawl to the left, because the right rotor always rotates. But for the third pawl, it means that whenever the rotor at the left is moved, so too is the middle rotor. This is called doublestepping. Thus we get the following sequence of steps, in which the single notch is marked by the square outlined in gray:
In the next section I'll explore the consequences of double stepping. Maps and graphsThere are only a finite number of rotor positions, so as one enters a long message into an Enigma, sooner or later the state of the rotor must come back to some previous position. In this section I want to try to explain exactly how this works. We have seen in the previous section that each rotor has on one side a single notch that determines when the rotor at its left advances. There are some complications that occur in reality, since the notch and numbers displayed are located on a ring that can be rotated relative to the internal wiring of the rotor. I am going to ignore this in the discussion to come. I am also going to number things $025$ instead of $126$. Exactly where the notch is located relative to the numbers displayed depends on the particular type of rotor at hand. For example, in the rotor I in my diagrams the rotor advance takes place when 17 is visible. I am going to ignore this, too, and assume simply that the notch is activated when the number 25 is visible. With these simplifying assumptions, we have these rules: (1) the right rotor always advances in each step; (2) if 25 is visible on a rotor, then in the next step both this rotor and the one to its left will advance. For example, we shall have the following sequence of visible triples: 25 25 25, 0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 0 2, ... and we ask: Will 25 25 25 ever recur? If not, what will be the first triple repeated? Which triples are in fact repeated? If the rotors behaved like a car odometer all triples would repeat and a triple repeats after exactly $26^3$ steps. With double stepping things are different. In the literature it is often asserted that the period of the rotor positions is $26 \times 25 \times 26$, but I am not aware of any place where this is justified. I shall do this here. In understanding several features of the Enigma machine, it will help to have at hand a graphical description of an abstract construct. A map from any set to itself assigns to each element of the set another element of it. Thus the rules mentioned above define a map from triples of numbers in the range $[0, 25]$ to itself, mapping one rotor position to the next. There is a useful way to picture maps by what is called a graph, at least if the set is finite and small. The nodes of the graph are the elements of the set, and there is an edge from one element to another if the map takes the first to the second. It is not feasible to draw the graph defined by rotor advance, but it will be instructive to look at a simpler model. Take the set to be that of all pairs $(x, y)$ with $x$, $y$ in $[0,2]$. The map follows these rules reminiscent of that defined by Enigma: (a) the value of $y$ always changes, incrementing by $1$ but cycling around to $0$ when $y=3$; (b) the value of $x$ increments similarly when $y = 2$, in which case both $x$ and $y$ increment. The set has 9 elements. Explicitly: $$ \eqalign { (0,0) &\mapsto (0,1) \cr (0,1) &\mapsto (0,2) \cr (0,2) &\mapsto (1,0) \cr (1,0) &\mapsto (1,1) \cr (1,1) &\mapsto (1,2) \cr (1,2) &\mapsto (2,0) \cr (2,0) &\mapsto (0,1) \cr (2,1) &\mapsto (0,2) \cr (2,2) &\mapsto (0,0) \cr } $$ and the corresponding graph is this:
This can be summarized briefly by saying that after a few steps the system enters into a loop of $6 = 3 \times 2$ nodes. The states $(2,1)$, $(2,2)$, and $(0,0)$ can never repeat, but all other states can. Understanding this diagram should be a big step towards understanding how the (simplified) Enigma machine works. First of all one could look at the very similar map from $[0,25]^{2}$ to itself following the rules (a) the value of $y$ is always incremented ${\rm mod} \; 26$; (b) if $x = 25$ then both $x$ and $y$ are incremented. Part of the graph looks like this:
There is a loop of $25\times 26$, and another $26$ nodes feeding into it. The 26 ordered pairs $(0,0)$ and $(25,n), 1 \leq n \leq 25,$ are excluded from the loop. Similarly, and very roughly stated, in Enigma the chain $(m, 25, n)$ of length $26 \times 26$ is more or less excluded. Where to learn more
Technical information about the machines
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