The connection between mathematics and art goes back thousands of years. Mathematics has been used in the design of Gothic cathedrals, Rose windows, oriental rugs, mosaics and tilings. Geometric forms were fundamental to the cubists and many abstract expressionists, and award-winning sculptors have used topology as the basis for their pieces. Dutch artist M.C. Escher represented infinity, Möbius bands, tessellations, deformations, reflections, Platonic solids, spirals, symmetry, and the hyperbolic plane in his works.
Mathematicians and artists continue to create stunning works in all media and to explore the visualization of mathematics--origami, computer-generated landscapes, tesselations, fractals, anamorphic art, and more.
"Snap-together Super-Bottle of Genus 4/σ," by Carlo Séquin (University of California, Berkeley)
ABS plastic, printed on an FDM machine, 16 x 20 x 14 cm, 2015
Stimulated by the LEGO-Knot project, I aimed to design a set of modular parts that permits to compose not only various handle-bodies, but also single-sided surfaces of higher genus. The modular parts employed in my sculptures are tubular 3-way junctions, where one of the tubular stubs exposes the opposite side of the surface shown by the other two stubs. Depending on how the parts are connected, the resulting compositions remains orientable or becomes single-sided; in the latter case they correspond to sums of multiple Klein bottles; which I call "Super-Bottles." The two identical parts of which the sculpture is composed can be put together in three different ways. In two cases the resulting surface is single-sided (σ = 1) and in the third case it is double-sided (σ = 2). The genus of the resulting surface is 4/σ. The configuration shown is a non-orientable surface of genus 4, corresponding to the connected sum of two Klein Bottles, with two punctures. The insets show the two individual parts, and an assembly of them resulting in a 2-hole torus of genus 2 (with two punctures). --- Carlo Séquin