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Math ImageryThe connection between mathematics and art goes back thousands of years. Mathematics has been used in the design of Gothic cathedrals, Rose windows, oriental rugs, mosaics and tilings. Geometric forms were fundamental to the cubists and many abstract expressionists, and award-winning sculptors have used topology as the basis for their pieces. Dutch artist M.C. Escher represented infinity, Möbius bands, tessellations, deformations, reflections, Platonic solids, spirals, symmetry, and the hyperbolic plane in his works.

Mathematicians and artists continue to create stunning works in all media and to explore the visualization of mathematics--origami, computer-generated landscapes, tesselations, fractals, anamorphic art, and more.

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Home > Frank Farris :: Seeing Mathematics

"Tiffany Glass from a Mountain Gentian and its Negative," by Frank A. Farris, Santa Clara University, CA

Ink jet on paper, 2012.

Using a composite photograph of a mountain gentian juxtaposed with its negative to produce an intense contrast of purple with the original green, I used just the right waves to make wallpaper with horizontal mirrors, vertical glides, and 2-fold rotational symmetry. In the notation of the International Union of Crystallographers, the symmetry group of this pattern is pmg, but if we allow color-swapping transformations as generalized symmetries, the larger group is cmm, so this pattern type is called cmm/pmg. The "Seeing Symmetry" virtual exhibition at includes more works and details. --- Frank A. Farris

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